Vellore district is a district of Tamil Nadu state with its administrative headquarters located at Vellore city. During different periods of time the Vellore district has been ruled by many different dynasties such as Cholas of Uraiyur, Pallavas, Rashtrakutas of Malkhed, Sambuvarayar, Marathas, the Nawabs of the Carnatic and finally the British. The district plays an important role at the time of Indian struggle for independence. The first revolt against British i.e. Sepoy Mutiny was took place in the Vellore fort in 1806 which just a lead up to the Revolt of 1857. Moreover, men from the Vellore district fought in the British India Army and sacrificed their lives in the World Wars. All about this is recorded in the clock tower in the long bazaar at Vellore, raised in the year 1920, where an inscription made like "Vellore-From this Village 277 men went to the Great war 1914-18, of them 14 gave up their lives". In 1947 when India got its independence, Vellore was a part of the earlier Madras state. Then after some time it was become a part of North Arcot District, established by the British in the 19th century. On 1st April, 1911, the district was divided into 2 parts namely Chittoor district and North Arcot. Later on 30th September, 1989 the district was again divided into 2 parts include Tiruvannamalai-Sambuvarayar (today’s Tiruvannamalai) and North Arcot Ambedkar districts. Vellore as a separate district came into existence on 30th September, 1989. In the year 1996 North Arcot Ambedkar district was renamed as Vellore District.
Paul Daniel Dinakaran Premkumar, the Ex-Chief Justice of the Sikkim High Court (8th August, 2008-29 July, 2011) was born on 9th May, 1950 at Arakkonam in the district. He resigned from the post because of some allegations of corruption and subsequent impeachment proceedings.
Geographically, the district lies between 12°92'N latitude, 79°13'E longitude and 1411 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 30.04% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 6,075 sq. km. and it is surrounded by Tiruvallur district on the northeast, Kanchipuram district on the southeast, Tiruvannamalai district on the south, Krishnagiri district on the southwest and Andhra Pradesh state on the north and northwest. The climate of the district remains pleasant throughout the year. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1429.2 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 9 tehsils namely Vellore, Katpadi, Vaniyambadi, Ambur, Arakkonam, Arcot, Gudiyatham, Tirupattur and Walajah. There are 15 Assembly seats and 1 Lok Sabha constituency in the district. Moreover, the district comprises 72 towns and 858 villages. The administrative language in the district is Tamil.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 39,36,331 out of which 19,61,688 are males and 19,74,643 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1137 females for 1000 males. During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 13.20% including 12.67% were males and 13.73% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 86.32% of the total population. The population density in the district is 648 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Tamil with 80.36%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 61,778 out of which 31,959 were males and 29,819 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 34,831 out of which 20,258 were males and 14,573 were females.
The economy of the district is mainly based on agriculture. Most of its population are engaged in agriculture for their livelihood. Some chief cultivating crops in the district are Paddy, Cholam, Ragi and Redgram. The district produces sugarcane and cocunut in a huge quantity. For the oil seeds the natives of the district cultivate Groundnut, Coconut, Sunflower and Gingelly. In term of industries, the leather industry is the prominent industry in the district. There are 3 important industrial estates in the district include SIDCO at Katpadi, SIPCOT at Ranipet and SIDCO at Arakkonam. In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 37,11,070 lakhs at current price and Rs. 24,51,503 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 76,40,212 lakh at current price and Rs. 56,82,022 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 1,51,019 at current price and Rs. 1,18,860 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district has provides a platform for higher education. The Christian Medical College in Vellore is the second best medical college in India. It is also one of the largest private hospitals in the Tamil Nadu state. Some other reputed educational institutes in the district are Vellore Institute of Technology, C. Abdul Hakeem College (Arts and Science), C. Abdul Hakeem College of Engineering & Technology, Islamiah College for Men and Islamiah College for Women, Marudhar Kesari Jain College for Women, Priyadarshini engineering college, Sacred Heart College etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 79.17% including 86.5% are males and 71.95% are females.
B. Senguttuvan, an eminent Indian politician and present Member of Parliament elected from Tamil Nadu was born on 21st May, 1956 in Vellore. He is elected to the 16th Lok Sabha from Vellore constituency. He is a member of Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam political party (ADMK).
Tourism of the district is developing day by day. Its centres of attraction allure numerous travellers from across the country. Vellore Fort is the marvellous creation of the British period. At that time the Tipu Sultan's family and the last king of Sri Lanka called Vikrama Rajasinha, were poisoned in the fort. The first rebellion against British rule was started at this fort in 1806. Sripuram is a spiritual park situated in a place named Malaikodi at the foot of green hills. This park has a golden temple located at the southern end of the Vellore city. The Jalagandeeswarar Temple in the Vellore fort is well-known for its sculptures and exquisite craftsmanship of that period. Other beautiful temples in the district are Ratnagiri Murugan Temple, Wallajapet Dhanvantri Temple, Sri Veera Vijaya Anjaneya Swami temple and Ponnai Navagraha Kottai Temple. Assumption Cathedral and the 150-year-old St. John's Church within the fort are the most remarkable churches in Vellore. Yelagiri, Amirthi Forest & Zoological Park and Sri Thenvenkatachalapathy Temple are some of its vital tourist spots.