Perambalur district is a district of the Tamil Nadu state with its administrative headquarters located at Perambalur town. The history of the district is clearly available from the year 1741 when the place, Tiruchirappalli was invaded by the Marathas and imprisoned Chanda Saheb, the then ruler of Tiruchirappalli. But in 1748 Chanda Saheb was succeeded in securing freedom. After that many rulers from different dynasties came and ruled the Tiruchirappalli region. In the history of the district, a power struggle between Hyder Ali and later Thippu Sultan with the British was also mentioned. After the demise of Thippu Sultan, the British took the civil and military Administration of the Carnatic in the year 1801. Then finally, the Tiruchirappalli became a part of the British rule and emerged as a district in 1801. Later, in 1995 Tiruchirappalli was divided into three parts, out of which two new districts were formed namely Perambalur and Karur. Therefore, the Perambalur district came into existence on 1st November, 1995.
Thus Tiruchirappalli came in to the hands of the English and the District was formed in 1801.
Geographically, the district lies at 11°23'N latitude, 78°88'E longitude and 148 m altitude. In the year 2021, there was a total 8.10% forest area of total geographical area. The district encompasses a geographical area of 1,756 sq. km. and it is bounded by Cuddalore district on the North, Tiruchirappalli district on the South, Thanjavur district on the East, Namakkal district on the West and Tiruchirappalli district on the West. Most of its rainfall occurs in the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 1469.4 mm in the year of 2021-22.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 taluks namely Perambalur, Kunnam and Veppanthattai. Moreover, it comprises 5 towns and 159 villages. The administrative language in the district is Tamil.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 5,65,223 out of which 2,82,157 are males and 2,83,066 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 1003 (females for every 1000 males). During the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 14.50% including 14.63% were males and 14.37% were females. As per 2011 census the major religion in the district is Hindu with 92.29% of the total population. The population density in the district is 322 persons per sq. km. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district is Tamil with 97.92%. In the year 2020 the number of live births in the district was 8,051 out of which 4,180 were males and 3,871 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 5,687 out of which 3,408 were males and 2,279 were females.
Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of the district. Most of the lands in the district are use for agricultural purposes. More than half of its population are engaged in agriculture in order to earn their livelihood. The chief agricultural products in the district are paddy, sugarcane, groundnut, millets, cashew, etc. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from the agricultural products in the district helps in its economy to a great extent. Industrially, also the district is quite well developed. The prominent industries in the district are Perambalur Sugar Mills, MRF Limited, cement factories, etc. The district is rich in mineral resources as well. Celeste, lime stone, shale, sand stone, canker and phosphate nodules are commonly found at various places in the district. In the year 2011-12 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 2,23,948 lakhs at current price and Rs. 1,21,957 lakhs at constant prices in the year 2004-2005. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 5,22,288 lakh at current price and Rs. 3,55,792 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2016-17 was Rs. 69,812 at current price and Rs. 51,877 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
Perambalur district is well known as an abode of several reputed educational institutions. It provides a platform for higher education. Furthermore, a central library with internet facility is also present in the district. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 74.32% including 82.87% are males and 65.9% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 3,75,823 out of which 2,08,011 are males and 1,67,812 are females.
Andimuthu Raja, an eminent Indian politician from the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) political party was born on 26th October, 1963 at Velur in the Perambalur district. He has served as the Minister of State for Rural development from 1996 to 2000. After that in September 2000 he became the Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare and held the position till May 2004.
The district has several centres of attraction which allures many travellers from different parts of the country as well as world. The Ranjankudi Fort, situated at a distance of 17 km. on the northern part of the Perambalur district was constructed by Jaginthar under the supervision Nawab of Carnatic in the 17th century AD. It is the spot where the battle of Valikondah was fought between Mohamed Ali and the British on one side and the French and Chanda Sahib on the other side in 1751 A.D. National Fossil Wood Park, located at Sathanur in the district has a fossilized tree trunk which was discovered by a distinguished geologist Dr. M.S. Krishnan of the Geological Survey of India in 1940. It is believed that the fossilized tree trunk is over 120 million years old and on the basis of it the Geological Survey of India concluded that during the Cretaceous period there was a sea in this area. The two significant ancient temples in the district are the temples of Arulmigu Ekambareswarar and Thandayudhapani Swamy, situated at the Chettikulam village. Some 800 years ago, these temples were built by the King Kulasekara Pandiyan. Some other notable places of interest in the district are Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Karaivetti Birds Sanctuary, Elakurichi, etc.