Kurnool district is a district of Andhra Pradesh, situated in its west-central part with the administrative head quarters of the district located at Kurnool city. The district got its name from the term "Kandanavolu" meaning "the city of Kandena". The Telugu term Kandena means grease. There is also a story behind the association of the term Kandena (grease) with the name of the district. In the medieval period 12th century AD. the Odders, who carted stones for the construction of the temple at Alampur, Mahaboobnagar District situated on the left bank of the River Thungabhadra and it was the place where they used to stop before crossing the Tungabhadra. Most of the time they stopped there to greased their cart wheels by local grease supplied by grease merchants this is the very reason for which earlier the place was called 'Kandanavolu' which later with the passage of time came to be known as Kurnool. In the ancient time the Kurnool city was often called as the city of Skanda or Kumaraswamy (the chief God of Wars). Before the Medieval period the place was occupied by the monks of Buddhism and Jainism. At present also the Belum Caves in the district has many Buddhist replicas of that period.
Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, an eminent politician and 9th chief minister of Andhra Pradesh for two times in 1983 and from 1992 to 1994 was born on 16th August, 1920 at Laddagiri in the district. He was also elected as the member of Lok Sabha for six times i.e. in 1922, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1996 and 1998. He was a member of Indian National Congress party.
Geographically, the district lies at 15°82'N latitude, 78°04'E longitude and 899 m. Altitude. In the year 2019, there was a total 12.30% forest area of total geographical area. The district occupies a geographical area of 17,658 sq. km. and it bounded by Mahbubnagar district of Telangana on the north, Anantapur district and Kadapa district on the south, Praksam district on the east and Ballari district of Karnataka on the west. The climate of the district is characterized as tropical climate. Most of its rainfall occurs during the monsoon season. The actual rainfall in the district was 701.6 mm. in the year of 2019-20.
Administration wise, the district is divided into 3 revenue divisions Kurnool, Nandyal and Adoni divisions. Moreover, it comprises 54 sub-districts, 12 towns and 898 villages. The administrative language in the district is Telegu.
According to 2011 census the district has a population of 40,53,463 out of which 20,39,227 are males and 20,14,236 are females. The district has a sex ratio of 988 (females for every 1000 males). In the year 2001-2011 the population growth rate in the district was 14.85% including 13.53% were males and 16.21% were females. As per 2011 census the major religions in the district are Hindu and Muslim with 82.11% and 16.55% of the total population. The population density in the district is 230 persons per sq. kms. According to 2011 census the principal language in the district are Telugu and Urdu with 80.13% and 15.21%. In the year 2018 the number of live births in the district was 91,700 including 48,722 were males and 42,978 were females. In the same year the number of deaths in the district was 30,131 including 19,018 were males and 11,113 were females.
The district is abundant in mineral resources. Minerals available in the district are iron ore, dolomite, lime stone, ochre, quartz satellite and silica. Industrially, the district is developing gradually and some important industries in the district are oil mills, textile mills, stone polishing units, cement plants, and chemical industries. Every year a huge chunk of revenue comes from these industries. In the year 2018-19 the gross domestic product in the district was Rs. 58,93,100 lakh at current price and Rs. 42,43,900 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The net domestic product in the district during the period 2015-16 was Rs. 33,35,200 lakh at current price and Rs. 26,92,700 lakh at constant prices in the year 2011-2012. The Per Capita Income or NDDP, At Factor Cost during the period 2018-19 was Rs. 1,28,308 at current price and Rs. 90,726 at constant prices in the year 2011-2012.
The district provides a platform for the higher education. Some reputed educational institutes in the district are Dr. Jyothirmayi Degree College, Government Degree College, GVRS Government Degree College, Institute Of Advanced Study in Education, J.V.R.R. Memorial College of Education, K.V.R. Government College For Women, Osmania College, Rayalaseema University, Silver Jubilee Government College, etc. As per 2011 census the literacy rate in the district is 59.97% including 70.1% are males and 49.78% are females. The total number of literates in the district is 21,27,161 including 12,46,369 are males and 8,80,792 are females.
Shobha Nagi Reddy, an illustrious Indian politician and the member of Legislative Assembly of Andhra Pradesh for four terms till 2012 in which she represented the Allagadda constituency was born on 16th December, 1969 at Allagadda village in the district. She was a member of Prajarajyam party until 2012 but she resigned because of some political turm oil in the party and later she joined YSR Congress party. Bhuma Nagi Reddy, a famous politician and a Lok Sabha member for three consecutive terms i.e. 11th, 12th and 13th Lok Sabha was born on 8th January, 1964 at Kothapalle village in the district. He is the member of Telugu Desam Party.
The various sets of tourist place allure numerous travellers from across the country every year. Srisailam, one of the most admired centre of attraction in Kurnool district. Srisailam Dam, for irrigation & hydro-electric power generation is the identity of this place. Belum Caves in the district is the longest and underground caves with three well like cavities. The stalactite and stalagmite formations are the uniqueness of the cave. The surrounding of the cave is full of breath taking natural sceneries. Oravakallu Rock Garden located between water bodies is a natural rock garden. The Kethavaram Rock paintings of Paleolithic era are also located along with the rock garden. Yaganti, a temple to Lord Shiva is located 100 km. from the city of Kurnool. Pilgrims from far distance place come to this temple to offer their prayers. Rollapadu Wildlife Sanctuary, a wildlife sanctuary in the district is primarily well known as a habitat of the Great Indian Bustard & Lesser Florican. Konda Reddy Fort in the district was built between the periods of 14th to 16th centuries. The fort attracts the historically enthusiasm travellers from different parts of the country.